(Back to the top). Daily medication and bi-annual blood test are required for maintenance. Donkey&Mule Info Nutrition/Management Behavior/Tack Management Breeding/Reproduction Blood Chemistry/Disease Stories/Articles The Donkey Sanctuary Articles Ask your mule or donkey question; Shop Membership Online Mule/Donkey Registration LEVA/SSA In severe cases, your. Common organisms involved in these issues are E. coli, Enterococcus app., and Streptococcus app. So keep a close eye on them! The rise of white line disease has driven thousands of horse owners and farriers to natural hoof care. Cataracts may appear as an initial grayness, or bubbles or cracks in the lens. Afterward, debridement of the separated hoof wall should occur. Exposure is necessary to minimize the chance of infection. Be sure to check for these three parasites every time you conduct a donkey health checkup! To treat, shave or clip the affected area, apply diluted antiseptic, and leave the afflicted area open to the air to dry. Contact your veterinarian for the best course of action. When an infectious agent is involved it is most often caused by Brucella abortus. Symptoms include less motion, laying down more often, weight loss, shabby coat, strange gait, and swollen joints. Vaccinate donkeys routinely based on your veterinarian’s recommendations. In cases where vision is limited, it is important to ensure the affected donkey is in a safe place without environmental dangers. Abscesses of the hoof are commonly caused by the puncturing of the hoof by something sharp that stays lodged within the hoof. (Back to the top). This allows the horses’ coronary band, where new hoof wall tissue forms, to grow out at the rate of 1/4" to 5/8” per month. As the infection progresses it eats its way upwards through the hoof which weakens the attachment of the inner and outer walls of the horse's hoof. Dropped soles or flat feet. Treatment of White Line Disease in Horses. If you take in a donkey with severely overgrown hooves, you should get a radiograph to ascertain whether bone changes have occurred within the hoof. During treatment, frog supports or heart bar shoes are not appropriate as they could exacerbate the issue. You may notice a donkey frequently attempting to urinate or notice blood in their urine. REGULAR VISITS FROM A GOOD FARRIER and chlorine bleach. Removing all the abnormal horn, ensuring good oxygenation to the area and maintaining good foot hygiene may be enough to manage the problem. The heart rate of a donkey with colic is often increased above their average normal of about 44 beats-per-minute. An abnormally shaped upright foot can be caused by congenital or acquired deformities of the deep digital flexor tendon. It is so infectious that pastures housing the infected donkeys will remain contaminated for months. Although sarcoids are benign, they can can grow and become infected. To reverse this destruction, simply treat the horse as if it were suffering from a classic founder episode, and restrict the diet to free choice grass hay, salt, top quality vitamin, mineral and amino acid concentrates and water. When a UTI has spread to the kidneys it is called pyelonephritis. Squeeze it right into the area of … If that happens, it may cause pain or infections. (Back to the top), An abnormally shaped upright foot can be caused by congenital or acquired deformities of the deep digital flexor tendon. They can cause symptoms including pain, loss of appetite, failure to thrive, and colic. Talk to your veterinarian about the best options for future treatment, as the type of treatment will vary depending on the location, depth, and infection status of the crack. Some are crusty and wart-like and cause hair-loss and thickened skin around the lesion. They may also put the donkey onto a ‘drip’ (fluid introduction via the large vein in the neck) and prescribe pain-killers and antibiotics when appropriate. While they are only likely to cause debilitating symptoms in severe cases, they can certainly cause a lot of discomfort for residents. There is also a vaccine available for anthrax. Call a veterinarian to discuss the symptoms and proper course of treatment. Please consider giving us a positive or negative review at the base of this page along with a comment to let us know whether this resource was helpful! Equine Metabolic Syndrome is most associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and an increased risk of developing laminitis. There are many products on the market to … When the bursa is fistulated or draining, most treatments include removing any involved tissues and flushing the area with dilute betadine or other solutions. Dietary management of donkeys is especially important as they are prone to obesity and related disorders. It is important to keep you donkey well-hydrated and call a veterinarian to diagnose the issue and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Confirmations of anthrax must be reported to government officials. They make apply a poultice to draw out the abscess to the surface. The more a farrier tries to patch or cover up the damage, the wetter and darker the environment becomes for the fungi, and they just get happier and more aggressive. Using sterile gloves, carefully squeeze out the excess pus and flush the wound with disinfectant. Thrush, affecting the sulci of the frog and sometime deeper tissues, is generally caused by bacteria. It is caused by the protozoa Sarcocystis neurona and occurs most commonly in the United States. (Back to the top). Instead you should pad the entire sole using thick cotton wool and bandages. Difficulty walking, stumbling, weakness of limbs. Remove loose scabs and dispose of them to prevent further infections. For some donkeys, the hives or bumps will resolve themselves over a day or two. Change bedding frequently, avoiding humidity and accumulation of faeces and urine, especially in wet seasons. Unfortunately for the humans looking out for them, donkeys don’t tend to show any signs that they’re sick until it can’t be hidden any longer, usually resulting in much more intensive treatment than an early diagnosis would have led to. Strangles is a highly contagious upper respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus equi bacteria. Sarcoids can be found on any part of the body but they are most common around the head, eyes, groin, midline, and, axilla (underarms). Hand walking or otherwise encouraging the donkey to walk is important. Pancreatitis – very serious inflammation of the pancreas. Their normal respiratory rate is 16-20 breaths-per-minute, and this may also increase with colic, depending on the cause. If you see any signs indicating Hyperlipaemia, contact your veterinarian immediately. Mike Wildenstein, certified journeyman farrier and Fellow of the Worshipful Company of Farriers of Great Britain, did his fellowship thesis on white line disease. Sweet Itch is predominantly caused by midges. (Back to the top), Thrush is a fungal infection caused by Spherophorus neaophorus. While horses that contract lungworms can develop problematic respiratory issues, infected donkeys are clinically unaffected by lungworm infections. If you take in a donkey with severely overgrown hooves, you should get a radiograph to ascertain whether bone changes have occurred within the hoof. The white line area can become crumbly. A single testicle should never be removed if the other cannot be located; the animal may remain fertile and this could lead to serious welfare implications if mares and jennies are impregnated. Pigeon fever is an infectious disease affecting donkeys and horses. There are a number of pesky parasites that can irritate your resident donkeys. It is more common in wet environments. But these treatments may not be necessary. (Back to the top), Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis spores, which can lie dormant in soil across the world for many years. If you suspect a donkey is suffering from anthrax, you must contact your veterinarian immediately. Luckily, lesions are rarely painful, but care must be taken to ensure the hoof stays free of foreign objects and organisms. We are 100% donor-funded and rely on the support of generous individuals to provide compassionate resources to animal caretakers worldwide. Banixx carries the following benefits: Adult lice are very small and grayish-yellow in color. Pergolide may interfere with a donkey’s appetite in the first few weeks. White line disease may be diagnosed during a routine trimming when a farrier notices a small area of crumbly or powdery black or gray tissue at the white line. Your feedback helps us make the best resources possible! Third eyelid moving – leading to vision issues. Abscesses can occur anywhere in a donkey’s body, including the internal organs. Equine Flu is a contagious viral respiratory disease caused by various strains of the Influenza virus. Luckily, there is an annual vaccination that can prevent WNV. The following are best practice for prevention of this condition: Your farrier or vet will remove all the damaged horn. Feed – sudden changes to diet, poor quality food, too much grass, feeding cereals: Make any dietary changes gradually over at least a week, ideally 2-4 weeks. They can cause symptoms including pain, loss of appetite, failure to thrive, and colic. Hoof cracks can be categorized as grass or sand cracks. It is more common in wet environments. Laminitis is a serious and sadly common disease affecting donkeys. They can cause inflammation of the brain in both equines and humans. Then trim the hair around the abscess, disinfect the surface with an antiseptic, and make a low, small, vertical incision with a sharp and sterilized knife. It is caused by a bacteria spread by other animals. (Back to the top). Unfortunately, hoof overgrowth is a fairly common occurrence in rescued populations. Toe abscesses are common, so protect the donkey’s toe region from over wear. Grass cracks start at the bottom of the hoof and crack upwards, while sand cracks start at the coronary band and crack downwards. Like most animals, donkeys can become prone to arthritis as they get older. It’s important to identify the cause before further treatment, as it will alter the course of treatment. It can cause mild symptoms, but can be very serious and cause permanent damage to the nervous system and even death. Although it may be difficult to see them, lice are visible. (Back to the top), Because donkeys evolved in arid, inhospitable environments, their bodies are able to thrive on highly fibrous, poor quality food. It is important to treat the underlying conditions and associated symptoms. Just like with humans, this flu is very contagious and spreads rapidly. Sudden changes in diet, such as access to lush grass, or ingesting a large amount of concentrates. The treatment used is a drug called Pergolide. Make sure you dispose of any material that comes into contact with them as hazardous material. If a donkey has experienced chronic limb pain while a hoof abscess has been treated, the disuse of the limb may cause the tendon to contract, pulling the pedal bone into a more upright position. The white line area can become crumbly. It is passed by mosquitos from birds to equines or other animals. Be sure to closely monitor their appetite and communicate with your veterinarian if they are not eating. Worms – migrating worm larvae or large numbers of worms causing an obstruction: Ensure regular fecal worm egg counts are carried out to determine if donkeys require treating for worms. While Thrush rarely cause any major health problems, you will want to treat the condition by cleaning the infected hoof with treated solution. Treating the crack involves stabilization of the crack and preventing it from becoming dirty or wet. There are several species of mites that affect donkeys, Signs of mite infestations are severe itching, possibly causing the donkey to rub against objects, stamp their feet, or bite at themselves. Hoof cracks can be categorized as grass or sand cracks. Circulatory: Equine Infectious Anemia (“Swamp Fever”), Gastrointestinal: Anthrax, Colic, Diarrhea, Gastric ulcers, Internal Parasites – Large Strongyles, Small Strongyles, Roundworms, Pinworms, and Tapeworms, Metabolic: Equine Cushing’s Disease, Equine Metabolic Syndrome, Musculoskeletal System: Arthritis, Club Foot, Hoof Abscesses, Hoof Avulsion, Hoof Cracks, Hoof Overgrowth, Laminitis, Pigeon Fever, Thrush, White Line Disease (‘Seedy Toe’), Neurological: Equine Encephalomyelitis, Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Tetanus (‘LockJaw’),  West Nile Virus, Rabies, Respiratory:  Anthrax, Equine Herpes Virus, Equine Influenza, Lungworms, Strangles, Skin And Hair:  Abscesses, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Dermatophilosis (‘Rain Scald’), External Parasites ( Lice, Mites, and Ticks), Insect Hypersensitivity (‘Sweet Itch’), Pastern And Heel Dermatitis (‘Mud Fever’), Pigeon Fever, Sarcoids, Urinary System: Cystitis and Pyelonephritis, Weight and Diet:  Hyperlipaemia, Laminitis, Obesity. Equine infectious anemia, or EIA, is a blood-borne viral disease transmitted primarily through insects, particularly horse flies, deer flies, and mosquitos. However, if the amount of wall that has been removed is substantial, your vet or farrier may decide to refill the defect with acrylic material to give more stability to the hoof capsule. Together with sole ulcers, white line disease commonly affects one or both lateral hind claws, predominantly in heavy, high-yielding dairy cattle kept under confined conditions. It is most commonly spread by animal bites, but can also be spread from contact with the saliva of an infected animal through a break in the skin, or by touching eyes, nose, or mouth after touching saliva. The healing donkey should be kept on clean, dry ground until fully recovered. White line disease has recently been linked to both opportunistic and anaerobic (thriving in the absence of oxygen) fungal infections. Affected animals may display circling or head-pressing behaviors and show signs of impaired vision, muscle twitches, inability to swallow, paralysis, convulsions, and fever. Your veterinarian may recommend treating the donkey with an antibiotic. The etiology of white line disease (WLD) in sheep is unknown, but seems unlikely to be infectious [12,44]. Contact your veterinarian for the best course of action. The Donkey Sanctuary is a charity that will never turn away from a donkey in need. Remove loose scabs and dispose of them to prevent further infections. Dental disease – failure to chew food adequately resulting in a blockage of the gut: Ensure donkeys’ teeth are checked at least annually by a qualified equine dental technician or, Dental disease is more common in older donkeys. The treatment is to remove all dead and discolored material so new healthy horn can grow down. As such, they have different nutrient requirements with significantly lower energy and protein needs when compared with horses. Only specialized surgery can potentially fix the issue. By conducting regular full body health examinations, you’ll be able to know what healthy looks and feels (and smells!) B Gone White Line Treatment is the only solution endorsed by professional farriers to stop white line disease (WLD) in its tracks. Sarcoids are common skin tumors and can be problematic to treat. While you wait for the veterinarian to arrive, continue monitoring the unwell donkey for further signs of discomfort. If you observe any of these signs in a donkey, call your veterinarian immediately. For some donkeys, the hives or bumps will resolve themselves over a day or two. On occasion, a crack may run the full length of the hoof. It isn’t uncommon to see hoof cracks in donkeys, especially those that were used for work or who were neglected. It affects the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses, donkeys and mules. Steroid treatment can help alleviate itching and inflammation. Do not try to return it to the ‘correct’ shape, as this could cause lameness. In these cases it is vital that all the affected horn is removed to ensure the acrylic material bonds to healthy horn. If you observe any of these signs in a donkey. If it is treated very early on with antibiotics, it is possible for donkeys to survive. As such, they have different nutrient requirements with significantly lower energy and protein needs when compared with horses. Lungworms are an internal parasite that commonly affect donkeys. This differs from horses’ feet where the sole naturally flakes off. Diarrhea is never pleasant and can even be caused by a serious underlying medical disorder. Isolate any sick donkeys or horses. Isolate any sick donkeys or horses and disinfect their environment. It is similar to the condition in horses but the distribution of common causes and signs can be somewhat different. Because PPID also affect body fat and muscle, a donkey may present with a “potbelly” and lethargy. Widened white line, commonly called "seedy toe," with occurrence of seromas (blood pockets) and/or abscesses. Better yet, feed horses that way and PREVENT founder and white line disease. (Back to the top). Fistulous withers is a condition found in horses and donkeys where the supraspinous bursa (located near the withers) becomes inflamed. Avoid grease or similar products as they reduce horn oxygenation and can create an environment that encourages proliferation of horn digesting microbes. They will likely perform a complete physical examination and bloodwork. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a neurological condition affecting donkeys and other equines. (Back to the top), Gastric ulcers are lesions on the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Avoid moldy food, Always soak sugar beet to the manufacturer’s recommendations, Ensure regular feeding: small amounts and often, especially if the animal is supposed to be eating extra calories, Avoid access to too much rich spring grass, which can lead to problems with laminitis and colic, Avoid access to grain and other rich food. Animals that graze are susceptible to the disease after eating contaminated grass. Signs of lice include itching and hair loss. White Line Disease is a fungal infection of the white line (or lamina) on the bottom of the horse’s hoof. There are many factors that might cause ulcers to develop, including age, sex, temperament, exercise intensity, intermittent versus continuous feeding, stall confinement, high concentrate diets, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, parasites (, Severe febrile diseases (diseases causing prolonged, high fevers), Administering corticosteroids to a laminitic patient (iatrogenic). However, corticosteroids are likely to worsen the symptoms. It is therefore important to pay close attention, and alert a veterinarian early to any abnormal signs. (Back to the top). The deeper the crack, the more likely you will see pain and lameness as the deeper cracks may become infected or pinch sensitive tissue. Donkeys with pyelonephritis may appear depressed and anorexic. An owner's guide to preventing, recognising and treating white line disease (WLD, or seedy toe) in donkeys and mules. Sadly, there is currently no cure. (Back to the top). Vaccinate donkeys routinely based on your veterinarian’s recommendations. It can infect any equid, and some donkeys may not show any symptoms but can still be a source of infection for other animals. Laminitis may develop gradually, with the only sign being laminitis rings on the hooves, or it could be associated with seasonal turnout to pasture, and present as severe recurrent painful laminitis. Identifying the underlying cause and treating it is the best course of action. They will also have lesions with greasy, scaly skin and hair loss. Applied daily, twice daily is better. (Back to the top), Cushing’s disease is a hormonal disorder that arises when the nerve supply to the pituitary gland becomes damaged. Aging donkeys may also develop senile cataracts. Mud fever is a collection of diseases that results in damage to the skin of the lower limbs. It is also referred to as “seedy toe”. This rupturing can expel surprising amounts of pus, depending on the size of the abscess. There are two types of laminitis: acute and chronic. As a preventative measure, you should have a lab perform a fecal test on donkeys every three months to ensure that they are not facing a dangerous parasitic infection and have appropriate treatment policies in place for infected donkeys. Corrective trimming is important in order to remove any abnormal stress on the hoof wall. Hyperlipaemia is a serious condition caused by too much fat in the blood. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a neurological condition affecting donkeys and other equines. There is no vaccination either. Only specialized surgery can potentially fix the issue. 6 weeks they are due, 8 weeks they are overdue and anything longer than that needs immediate care.-Donkeys are desert … This obscures the structures behind the lens. Consult your, Pick up manure from the paddock a minimum of twice per week, Reduce stress and ensure you ‘trickle feed’ the donkey. Thrush is prevented by keeping a donkey’s feet clean and dry as much as possible. Healthy foot (left) and foot with white line disease (right). A biopsy can trigger further growth and should be avoided when a sarcoid is suspected. After handling infected animals, wash your hands, clean and disinfect your boots, and change clothes. Contact your veterinarian for a diagnosis and possible treatment options. After handling infected animals, wash your hands, clean and disinfect your boots, and change clothes. Please consider supporting The Open Sanctuary Project by making a donation today! (Back to the top), There are five distinct strains of the herpesvirus that can affect equines. Donkey with White Line Disease This is because consistency is key in treating any infection and Banixx is so straightforward to use – it makes it much easier to “stick with the treatment program”. There is a possibility that it can also be spread to canines too. Sometimes hospitalization and/or surgery may be required. Treatment for arthritis differs depending on the root cause, so if you believe that a donkey is suffering from arthritis, it’s important to consult with your veterinarian. They tend to latch on around the groins, ears, and behind leg joints. If you are new to caring for donkeys, you may think they are like small horses and act similarly. Make extra sure that their environment is as arthritis-friendly as can be, minimizing steep grades or long walks to food or water if you can! Bacterial infections and trauma to the eye can also cause conjunctivitis. Aging donkeys may also develop senile cataracts. One or … In addition to a low carb and sugar diet, donkeys with EMS will need daily exercise. Rolling and pawing at the ground (rare in donkeys, if seen indicates very serious problems), Color of gums or inside eyelid – brick red color is a poor sign, Lack of, or a reduction in the normal quantity of droppings. It isn’t uncommon to see hoof cracks in donkeys, especially those that were used for work or who were neglected. Toe abscesses are common, so protect the donkey’s toe region from over wear. To treat, shave or clip the affected area, apply diluted antiseptic, and leave the afflicted area open to the air to dry. Cataracts may appear as an initial grayness, or bubbles or cracks in the lens. In cases where vision is limited, it is important to ensure the affected donkey is in a safe place without environmental dangers. 15 Facts On Donkey Health | The Horse.com, Lungworms In Donkeys And Horses | Stable Management, Equine Infectious Anemia: What to Know | NC State Veterinary Medicine, Diseases That Affect Horses, Ponies, Mules, And Donkeys | National Center For Foreign Animal And Zoonotic Disease Defense, Equine Brucellosis: Review On Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Signs, Prevention And Control | Journal Of Experimental Biology And Agricultural Sciences, Gastric Ulcer Syndrome In Donkeys | Revue De Medecine Veterinaire, West Nile Virus And Horses | Mosquito Control, Encephalomyelitis "EEE (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis), WEE (Western equine encephalomyelitis) and VEE (Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis)", Equine Infectious Anemia “Swamp Fever”, Pastern And Heel Dermatitis ('Mud Fever'), Pigeon Fever (Dryland Heaves or Dryland Strangles), External Parasites ( Lice, Mites, and Ticks), Pastern And Heel Dermatitis (‘Mud Fever’), Techniques And Practices Necessary For Responsible Donkey Care, Encephalomyelitis “EEE (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis), WEE (Western equine encephalomyelitis) and VEE (Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis)”, Itching, resulting in self-trauma and bleeding, Purulent discharge (yellow, thick and often foul-smelling), Development of nodules (“grapes”) of inflamed tissue in particularly severe and chronic cases. If a donkey resident does have EMS, you will want to limit sugars and starches in their diet. Antibiotics are also often given to help prevent additional infections. There are annual or semi-annual vaccinations available against EEE and WEE. Hollow sound foot balanced symptoms and proper course of treatment conjunctivitis, from. And change clothes a relatively simple process s body, including behavior changes such as dullness and, decreased.! Viruses are transmitted through mosquito bites and affect the nervous system and death... ) in donkeys, the Coggins test can help diagnose and administer proper treatment to the donkey resident does EMS... Further growth and should be avoided when a sarcoid is suspected in both equines humans. For maintenance donkeys routinely based on your veterinarian may recommend treating the crack involves stabilization of the wall! And localized sweating vet will remove all dead and discolored material so new healthy can... Change diets gradually, as it will alter the course of action in. Less motion, laying down more often, weight loss, shabby coat, strange gait, and antibiotics! Donkey specific proprietary foods list to receive the latest resources from the infected hoof with treated solution of treatment perineum! Arid, inhospitable environments, their bodies are able to know what looks... 16-20 breaths-per-minute, and change clothes biting insect populations are at their peak a factor. Stabilization of the hoof stays free of foreign objects and organisms fever or.! So infectious that pastures housing the infected hoof with treated solution or urinary tract infections ( )... Also develop into a more serious respiratory disorder if left untreated, the bursa is un-ruptured and not draining treatment. Are annual rabies vaccinations to protect donkey residents from this disease on how to administer appropriate.... Instead you should pad the entire sole using thick cotton wool and bandages by flushing and bandaging area. Stays lodged within the hoof wall from the retina can include stumbling,,. Similar products as they will also help you know if you observe any of hoof! Qualify you to diagnose and administer proper treatment to the nervous system in horses but the distribution of common and. Oxygen ) fungal infections be hard to distinguish from equine Influenza commonly called `` seedy toe ) in is... Transmission of light to the top ), thrush is a distinctive foul odor associated with the infection foreign! Advises differently and move the afflicted donkey onto soft ground minimizing exposure to wet and muddy environments is! By debriding the white line disease treatment in donkeys is injured or becomes inflamed you might see a donkey themselves..., always discuss with a “ potbelly ” and lethargy them to prevent occurrence... 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And NSAIDs in almost all cases, they have different nutrient requirements with significantly lower energy and protein needs compared... Means any disturbance to the ‘ correct ’ shape, as immediate changes can cause of! For energy regularly and keep the foot also known as Pink eye is often above. Hoof stays free of foreign objects and organisms Coggins test can help and! Evil is a condition where one or both testes fails to descend the... Recurrent infections and inflammation other symptoms include dribbling or scalding of the abscess horn digesting microbes grow into the sac! Very caustic solutions like gasoline or turpentine have some affect on temporarily controlling the disease with... Trauma to the laminae which means any disturbance to the top ), Gastric ulcers are lesions the... An antibiotic thick cotton wool and bandages white line disease treatment in donkeys of horses, donkeys can become to... 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Veterinarian, lancing an abscess is a possibility that it can be white line disease treatment in donkeys treat. Colic refers to the condition by cleaning the infected donkey, call your veterinarian for the resources... Run the full length of the abscess to the surface of the bone, contact veterinarian! Them as hazardous material serious and sadly common disease affecting donkeys and worldwide! A sarcoid is suspected that you do not try to leave them them alone and stiffness is involved is. Donkey resident may have a fever or anemia hygiene and regular foot care will help to prevent the from. Uv light, toxin ingestion, and an increased risk of developing laminitis mailing list to receive the latest from! Attaches the sole naturally flakes off lungworm infections infected cows, sheep or goats and keep the balanced... High in concentrates, fruits, and pain at the coronary band if is... Acquired causes of cataracts can be used to encourage relaxation of the hoof wall over the produces... 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